LIPOSARCOMA: A Rare Type Of Cancer (QnA)

LIPOSARCOMA: A Rare Type Of Cancer (QnA)

Q. What Is Liposarcoma?

A. Liposarcoma is a rare cancer of connective tissues that resemble fat cells under a microscope. It accounts for up to 18% of all soft tissue sarcomas.

Q. What Is The Survival Rate Of Liposarcoma?

A. Liposarcoma prognosis is reported based on disease subtype. Five-year disease-specific survival rates (chances of not dying from cancer-related causes) are as follows: 

  1. 100% in well-differentiated liposarcoma
  2. 88% in myxoid liposarcoma
  3. 56% in pleomorphic liposarcoma.

Q. What Are Common Sites Affected In Liposarcoma?

A. Liposarcoma can occur in almost any part of the body, but more than half of liposarcoma cases involve the thigh, and up to a third involve the abdominal cavity.

Q. What Age Group Is More Prone To Liposarcoma?

A. Liposarcoma tends to affects adults between the ages of 40 and 60. When it does occur in children, it is usually during the teenage years.

Q. What Are The Different Types In Liposarcoma?

A. There are four types of liposarcoma, each with its own unique characteristics and behaviors.

  1. Well-differentiated liposarcoma is the most common subtype and usually starts as a low-grade tumor. 
  2. Myxoid liposarcoma is an intermediate to high-grade tumor. 
  3. Pleomorphic liposarcoma is the rarest subtype and is a high-grade tumor with cells that look very different from normal cells.
  4. Dedifferentiated liposarcoma occurs when a low-grade tumor changes and the newer cells in the tumor are high grades.

The risk of recurrence and metastasis with liposarcoma increases with higher grade-(aggressive behavior of tumor).

Q. What Are The Causes Of Liposarcoma?

A. No Known cause of liposarcoma is reported. 

  • liposarcoma is not known to be caused by trauma. 
  • It is also not known to develop from benign lipomas, which are harmless lumps of fat

Q. What Are The Symptoms Associated With The Presence Of Liposarcoma?

A. Notice a lump (which can be soft or firm to the touch) that is usually painless and slow-growing.

Tumors in the abdomen can grow to be quite large before they are found.

Q. Enlighten Us With Various Tests To Diagnose Liposarcoma?

A. A physical examination is the first step in the liposarcoma diagnosis process.

 Lumps that are 5cm or larger and deep-seated, firm, and fixed to underlying structures are usually considered suspicious.  

Imaging tests are the next step and often include an X-ray and an MRI. 

There are two main types of biopsy: a needle and a surgical biopsy.

The results of the biopsy and imaging studies provide the medical oncologists with an idea of the “extent of spread,” or stage, of disease that can be used to create a treatment plan for the concerned case of liposarcoma.

Q.  Discuss Various Treatment Arms In Defeating Liposarcoma?

  • Surgery is the treatment for primary liposarcomas that have not yet spread to other organs. Occasionally, in about 5% of cases, an amputation is the best way to completely remove cancer and restore the patient to a functional life. Complete surgical removal of tumors within the abdomen is difficult, in part because of the difficulty in getting clear margins of normal tissue.
  • The combination of surgery and radiation therapy has been shown to prevent recurrence at the surgical site in about 85-90% of liposarcoma cases.
  • The role of chemotherapy in the treatment of liposarcoma is recommended in certain situations where patients are at high risk of recurrence or already have the widespread disease.

Q.  Role Of Targeted Therapy In Recurrent Liposarcoma Cases?

A. Pazopanib has potential antitumor activities against liposarcoma, especially dedifferentiated liposarcoma.

Pazopanib is an oral anti-angiogenic drug that inhibits VEGFR, PDGFR, FGFR, c-kit, and many other tyrosine kinases.